Reflection 1 : ID Models (Strengths and weaknesses)

What is Instructional Design?

There are a number of definitions for instructional design with slight variations between them, but the description boils down to something like this:

Instructional Design: The process by which instruction is improved through the analysis of learning needs and systematic development of learning experiences. Instructional designers often use technology and multimedia as tools to enhance instruction.

The ADDIE Model

ADDIE stands for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate. These equate to a 5-phase process for developing instructional materials.

  1. Analyze: The instructional designer clarifies the problem to be addressed with an instructional intervention, defines the training need and conducts an extensive audience analysis to determine the instructional environment, pre-existing knowledge, skills and abilities, opportunities and constraints.
  2. Design: The instructional designer writes learning objectives and determines the instructional strategies that will be utilized to achieve those objectives. Decisions are made about how the instructional materials will look, feel, operate, and be delivered to the learner. Storyboards and elearning prototypes are created.
  3. Develop: Content is assembled and incorporated into the design to produce the instructional or performance support materials. Deliverable is reviewed for quality and revised.
  4. Implement: The finished course or performance support tool is rolled out to the intended audience and its impact is monitored.
  5. Evaluate: The instructional designer uses various methods to determine whether the course or performance support tool is delivering the expected results.
  6. Analyze: The instructional designer clarifies the problem to be addressed with an instructional intervention, defines the training need and conducts an extensive audience analysis to determine the instructional environment, pre-existing knowledge, skills and abilities, opportunities and constraints.
  7. Design: The instructional designer writes learning objectives and determines the instructional strategies that will be utilized to achieve those objectives. Decisions are made about how the instructional materials will look, feel, operate, and be delivered to the learner. Storyboards and elearning prototypes are created.
  8. Develop: Content is assembled and incorporated into the design to produce the instructional or performance support materials. Deliverable is reviewed for quality and revised.
  9. Implement: The finished course or performance support tool is rolled out to the intended audience and its impact is monitored.
  10. Evaluate: The instructional designer uses various methods to determine whether the course or performance support tool is delivering the expected results.

Unfortunately, some of ADDIE’s strengths are connected to its weaknesses. Because of the sequential order, an error or misjudgment at the beginning is often carried through the process. The documentation for this model is laborious and produces a written plan that is essentially an abstract concept until it the implementation phase, at which point major revisions of the project could be costly, if not impossible. The written plans of the instructional designer are subject to misinterpretation by others and the proposal is a description of what to do, but not necessarily how to do it. In all of this, it is easy to lose sight of the learner in lieu of focusing on the instruction (Branch, 2017, p. 24).

SAM Model.

SAM (Successive Approximation Model) is one of the instructional design alternatives to the ADDIE model. It is a process model that relies on successive throwaway prototypes to communicate suggestions visually and provide opportunities for early and frequent formative testing of functionality (with live learners). As opposed to ADDIE’s document-heavy, abstract process, SAM’s use of prototypes throughout the project allows troubleshooting from the very beginning and makes for clearer communication of ideas and feedback between the designer and the stakeholders. SAM also develops preliminary plans for all of the content, from the beginning. Operating in this manner makes the SAM model very time-efficient, and therefore more cost-effective, in comparison to ADDIE (Allen & Merrill, 2017, pp. 33-35).

Dick and Carey Model

Strengths

The main strength of the model is that the designer requires clear and measurable learning objectives, thereby developing instruction as a systematic process. [Note: this could also be a weakness if “clear and measurable learning objectives” are not available.]

Weakness

It is base on the premise that every one of its components are essential, and therefore none can be skipped. 

Eclectic Design & Development Model

Strengths

  • Does not restrict to one perspective so allows new ideas to be formed.
  • Therapeutic methods treat the entire disorder and not just one symptom.
  • Humans are complex and it is not always possible to identify one precise cause.
  • Combining methods is a useful way of validating ideas.
  • The strengths of one method can be used to offset the weaknesses of another.
  • Trying to identify causation precisely risks reinforcing stereotypes.
  • Individuals’ needs are better matched to treatments when more options are available.
  • Provides a fuller, more detailed understanding of human behaviour.
  • Research design does not have to be dictated by the researcher’s paradigmatic stance

Weaknesses

  • It does not lend itself to prediction and control of behaviour.
  • It’s difficult to identify the relative contributions of each approach.
  • Explanation of behaviour may become “watered down” when combining many perspectives.
  • There are practical difficulties in investigating the integration of the approaches.
  • It does not lend itself to hypothesis testing.
  • Research methods chosen must be compatible with the paradigmatic stance of the researcher.
  • Explanations of behaviour are not parsimonious so may lead to confusing explanations of behaviour.
  • The researcher must have a solid grounding in combining methods to ensure that research is rigorous and robust.
  • There are practical difficulties when providing eclectic therapy. It may be too complex for one clinician to manage.

STRENGTH
• Easy adaptability by Non Technical person(Enduser).
• Provides structure to inexperienced staff.
• No planning needed.
• Works well for small projects with fixed and clear
requirements.
• Milestones are well defined and understood.
• Sets requirements stability.
• Good for management control (plan, staff, track).
• Works well when quality is more important than
cost or schedule.
• Each phase has well defined inputs and outputs

WEAKNESS
• All requirements must be known upfront.
• Deliverables created for each phase are
considered frozen inhibits flexibility.
• Longest tangible delivery time. The customer
does not see anything but the whole product when
it’s ready.
• It can give a false impression of progress.
• Does not reflect problem-solving nature of
software development. i.e iterations of phases.
• Integration is one big bang at the end.
• Little opportunity for customer to preview the
system.
• Unsuitable for large projects and where
requirements are not clear.


3 thoughts on “Reflection 1 : ID Models (Strengths and weaknesses)

  1. Nice & thorough reflections for the ID models. Maybe can add sample pictures or model flows for more clarification 😉

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Nice info! Just one suggestion, you might want to include picture of framework for each ID model as to provide depth understanding for the readers. Overall, good effort!

    Liked by 1 person

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